Land use and land cover


Land use and land cover are continuously changing, mainly a consequence of human activities and the rapid growth of economy. Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is driven by combinations of social, biophysical, and economic factors. Expansions of agriculture into forest areas have resulted in adverse impacts on natural resources, including soil, water, forest, and living organisms. These LULCC phenomena have been occurring worldwide, with no exception of Thailand.


The objective of this study is to continually monitor LULCC in the six provinces along the Andaman coast of Thailand (i.e., Phuket, Phang Nga, Krabi, Trang, Ranong, and Satun) using applications of low to high resolution satellite imageries for the best result of long term LULCC monitoring.


A study process consists of data preprocessing, classification, and change detection. Satellite image data have been geometrically corrected to remove spatial distortions by transforming all images into the same size and projection value, using the ground control point method. Classifications using maximum likelihood are then applied to classify the LULC types. Seven classes are delineated in the images, namely agricultural area, forest area, urban area, water body, other areas, cloud area, and shadow area. For each image, a number of sampling regions for each classes are selected based on the visual interpretation of a false color composite along with available information from the Google Earth and Google map. These datasets are then randomly divided for classifier training and accuracy assessment. Change detection is then employed to detect the differences between each pair of LULC maps.


A GIS mapping for land use and land cover change in the regions of interest; Phuket, Phang Nga, Krabi, Trang, Ranong, and Satun provinces.


  • This land use map can be used as an effective tool for monitoring long term changes in land utilization in the regions, and thus an appropriate decision making can be achieved effectively by policy makers for land use planning with respect to a balance of environmental sustainability and urban development.


1. Keson, J., and Wongsai, S. 2013. Land-use change in the Andaman Triangle provinces, Thailand. Journal of Remote Sensing and GIS Association of Thailand. 14(2), 58-66.
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